Petit image

(February 2001, last updated January 2002)
Examples of possible solutions
DO NOT READ THESE SOLUTIONS unless you really have DEFINITELY retired from the Lab!
Leave NOW: Lab2 entrance is [here]

[1) SARAH: copyrights galore]   [2) SCHOUMNUS: how many idiots click?]
[3) MELCHOM: stalking politicians and powerful puppeteers]   [4) MAGRAD: images, as different as snowflakes]

Please note that your Lab-assignement is to find THE MORE ACCURATE DATA about each query target and to describe exactly all steps and paths you have followed. Use pencil and paper, you wont regret it... see the tips below.
1) Regional: copyrights galore
codename: Sarah
'copyrights galore' or 'the importance of subsidiarity'... 'regional stabs', 'data extrapolation' and 'inference pointers'

How much of 'his' money does an author put in his own pocket? Say, for a book he has written? Say for his program? Say for his images/photos/songs? How high (or low) is his percentage of the money really made selling his work? Middlemen... how many? How much? Copyright enforcers? Lawyers?
Spelunking boldly in the dark world of copyrights.
Suggestion: you don't need to aim global... subsidiarity search! find the data for -say- Sweden and Spain and you'll be able to extrapolate somehow... even if many, or even almost all parameters do actually differ elsewhere...

Examples of possible solutions
Loki, february 2001
First attempt to answer to challenge [1 : SARAH] of the seachal2.htm

My targeted country for this challenge is France. I'm not 
an experienced seeker, and in term of evaluation the fact 
that the language used is my mother's one has done 50% of 
the job for me :)

I used the lexicon from ipr-helpdesk
in order to translate the "intellectual property" related terms the 
better i could.
First of all i have build a "pool" of sites that seemed related 
to our subject.

I used for that the meta search engine surfwax, 
the directory of search engines L'indicateur, the SE 
Google for his new hability to search inside 
PDF, and the librarian's index to the internet
All sites were collected in 2 hours (if i remember it right)
You can consult my draft on the attached file : lokipool.txt

The first step of our travel is law-perusing. In France when the 
intellectual property is concerned, we refeer to the Intellectual Property 
You can find a copy of it here :

To sum up, here is defined what is an artistic work, the patrimonial 
right of the author, the moral rights etc ... all kind of author rights.
Note that compilations and translation are artistic works.

Let's have a deeper look at that part : Article L.131-1 - Article 
L.131-8 : Exploitation des droits

Article L.131-4 :
La cession par l'auteur de ses droits sur son úuvre peut être totale ou 
partielle. Elle doit comporter au profit de l'auteur la participation 
proportionnelle aux recettes provenant de la vente ou de l'exploitation.
Toutefois, la rémunération de l'auteur peut être évaluée 
forfaitairement dans les cas suivants:

1° La base de calcul de la participation proportionnelle ne peut être 
pratiquement déterminée;
2° Les moyens de contrôler l'application de la participation font 
3° Les frais des opérations de calcul et de contrôle seraient hors de 
proportion avec les résultats à atteindre;
4° La nature ou les conditions de l'exploitation rendent impossible 
l'application de la règle de la rémunération proportionnelle, soit que la 
contribution de l'auteur ne constitue pas l'un des éléments essentiels 
de la création intellectuelle de l'úuvre, soit que l'utilisation de 
l'úuvre ne présente qu'un caractère accessoire par rapport à l'objet 
5° (Loi N° 94-361 du 10 mai 1994) En cas de cession des droits portant 
sur un logiciel;
6° Dans les autres cas prévus au présent Code.</PRE>

In other words, the author can make a transfer of right, full or 
partial.  But this transfer gots to have a proportional remuneration to the 
author. Proportional to what ? The selling or the exploitation of the 
The listed cases define some exeption to this law : instead of a 
proportional remuneration, you can have a contractual remuneration.

The articles from L.132-1 to L.132-17 are related to the contracts.
We have in the L.132-6 Article another case where contractual 
remuneration could be choose instead of proportional one. 
For a first edition of Scientifics Abstracts, Encyclopedia, 
Illustrations of a book, prayer books (!!!), cheap book for childrens etc ... 
It's the same for the journalism

That's for the Edition contract. There are other ones, you can have a 
presentation of them one the 
CALCRE site.
With these contracts, you can find an alternate way of editing your 
works, because, as the CALCRE said, and as we'll see it later, with the 
classical edition contract : 
"Soit que le pourcentage de droits d’auteur devienne scandaleusement 
bas, soit que l’éditeur pratique une rémunération forfaitaire là où elle 
n’est pas justifiée, soit enfin qu’il profite de certaines ambiguïtés 
juridiques pour minorer l’assiette des droits d’auteur (c’est-à-dire 
leur base de calcul)."
The alternates can let all the rights to the authors. The distributors 
are seen there as they'd have to be seen : as a SERVICE
Articles from L.321-1 to L.321-12 tells us that author can use Society 
of Authors to recieve their due. These one are often choose for 
musical, multimedia, computer programs authors
It's not the case for the book :
En d'autres termes, l'éditeur, sauf exception, ne paye pas directement 
l'auteur mais il partage la rémunération en provenance de la société 
d'auteur. Au contraire, dans la matière de l'édition littéraire, c'est 
bien l'éditeur qui verse directement à l'auteur ses redevances. Il en est 
ainsi parce que les éditeurs et les auteurs compositeurs, membres de 
sociétés d'auteur ont donné à celles-ci l'autorisation de gérer leurs 
droits. C'est donc, dans la plupart des cas, ces sociétés elles seules qui 
perçoivent la rémunération pour l'exploitation de l’œuvre et la 
rétrocèdent ensuite aux ayants droit.

So, we now have a first small representation of the general "artistic 
field" in France :

             transfer of rights
Authors -----------------------------> Editors
    ^                    		   ^ 
    | royalties                            |             
    Editors does a transfer of rights to the Society of Authors too
    |                     royalties        |
 Society of Authors -----------------------  

To finish with the law, you can find here an information report from 
the French National Assembly to the EU about the opening of the european 
art market
I haven't read it in detail, but it could be usefull for the next part
(internationalisation of our data ) 

So ... at that time we know that authors can suscribe to a Society of Authors. Who are they ? SACEM: Music 5% on TV exploitation, 6% on Radio exploitation "La plupart des auteurs d'oeuvres de l'esprit ont confié à une société de gestion collective, notamment la SACD, la SACEM, la SCAM..., le soin de délivrer en leur nom les autorisations pour la représentation et la reproduction de leurs oeuvres. Ces sociétés d'auteur se sont regroupées dans la SDRM pour gérer spécifiquement le droit de reproduction mécanique." Most authors have entrusted society of authors to deliver in their name the authorisation for representation and reproduction of their works. These society groups under the SDRM (La Société pour l'Administration du Droit de Reproduction Mécanique des Auteurs, Compositeurs et Editeurs ) to manage the copyright of their works. On the SDRM site, we can find the wanted percentage that was our target: "Le pourcentage est de 8 % sur le prix de vente au détail ou, à défaut, de 11 % sur le prix de gros publié aux détaillants (PPD)." 8% on the detail selling price, 11% for wholesale price. But there are abatements (a nice CD pocket reduce the percentage for exemple ) There's also a table for the minimum royalties on a CD. SCAM : Documentary SACD : Fiction, theater, dance For the cinema, we have here a typical contract. "Proportional royalties : ..... %" ADAGP : Graphical Arts A lawsuit beetween Frédéric Rossif, writer and realizer of "From Nuremberg to Nuremberg" and his editor. Here, the percentage is at 3 % on a sale of a videotape.
Let's have a look now from the side of the editors The edition world Editors you need to avoid Here you can download a guide on how to build Edition Contracts Here is a contract edition, but not with percentage, this one uses the method of "contractual remuneration" Some books editors : Cylibris They offer : 5% to 15% to authors, 50% on multimedia exploitation Couleur Locale "For a book of 150 pages, published in 200 specimens, sold 100 FF (French Francs ) - Print Cost : 15 to 30 FF - Librarian Stroke : from 30 to 50 % - the rest for the promotion This last point exceed generally the others. In consequence, the author owns rarely something (...)" (my poor translation of the interesting part)
now, the point of view of some authors on that subject 10% for this one FAQ de 8% to 12% for comics
I have collected some good documents, abstracts and other texts that discuss the subject of the author remuneration in France If you speak french, i recommand you to read that article from a student in DESS of Intellectual Property. I've extract two interesting sentences, wich i'll try to explain : "Le taux de la rémunération proportionnelle : L’art. L 131.4 ne donne aucune directive : le choix du taux est donc libre, en distinguant selon les modes d’exploitation. Cependant contrôle du caractère non dérisoire du taux : un pourcentage de 2.5/100 pour la rédaction de la quasi-totalité des textes ne peut apparaître comme sérieux et s’apparente nécessairement à une fraude à la loi (TGI PARIS 16.5.1969 D 1969.630). " It is said that the choosing of a rate for the proportional remuneration is free .. but there is a minus, under 2.5% it is consider as "ridiculous" and is liable to the law. (on verra que le recours au forfait devient de plus en plus fréquent sous l’influence des nouvelles technologies). The use of the contractual remuneration is more and more frequent under the influence of new technologies Articles from are indeed of great interest ! The newest one is an abstract about the Artistic License and the copyleft. We have now some percentages on the domain of : Music, Books, Films and their derived But there is some particular case. For exemple, the journalism. How much is paid a news authors ? Is it a contractual remuneration, or a percentage ? You can access here to the site of the Journalists Trade Union where it is discussed
I think we have now a good base about the author remuneration in France. We can go a bit further trying to understand better the "artistic field" as we did a little above A simple search on google with "filière du disque" gives interesting results : It's located in Canada, i agree, but i think they are kinda valuable in france too On a 15.39$ Disc : 4.29$ to the Editors 1.41$ to musicians 0.84$ to author and compositor 1.44$ for the manufacture 2.96$ to the retailer 1.83$ to the under distributor 2.55$ to the main distributor" Details about the artistic fields Now, we can try to generalise our information to the EU, and maybe later to the world : Valuable information about the intellectual property can be found here: Go here to access information about each country : On the pdffed report of the national assembly, we have a nice table that sum up for us the legal rate in some EU countries on page 27. Here are some extracts : France : rate : 3% thresold : 100FF | managing of the rights by a society or individually Belgium :rate : 4% thresold : 50 000FB Espana : rate : 3% thresold : 300.000 Pesetas Sweden :rate : 5% (...) For the USA, a good start could be the <a href="US Copyright Office Homepage To sum up, there are multiples way to distribute artistic works, but few gives more that 10% on the sales to the author. The artistic field is far too long :) I believe the power of Internet's going to help the mutation of this field. Authors can promote and sell their book themselves on the net. No need to use Editors, Distributors etc .. To point out that believe, i give you some links 'bout that mutation : Authors Rights and New Technology (Monique Léger) : "Key notions about author right with the test of networks" : Copyleft and destabilisation of the Intellectual Property : Internet and author right : a problem : These are in french ... my targeted country. I'm sure it'll easy to find international page related to that debate

2) Combing: How many idiots click?
codename: Schoumnus
'data reliablity' or 'the importance of looking at the cui prodest'... 'hidden databases', 'newspapers and newsweeks perusing' and 'evaluation lore'

How much money will newspapers and TV-channels and radio stations loose during the next years? How much 'advertisement budget' will be diverted to the web? 11%? 33%? 45%?
How many advertisement campaigns on the web do each cost now (and will cost later) more than 1.000.000 euros? 11%? 33%?
Are idiots and zombies clicking MORE or LESS on banners the more they use the web? Is someone really clicking on ad-banners at all? Visual tricks used to lure clickingn ~ advertisement banners average per site.
Spelunking boldly in the dark world of advertisement web-banners.
Suggestion: pop-ups and banners. Intestitial and consumer behaviour. "Send & cash" and linkexchanges and webrings and so on. Potential bonuses for clever seekers.

An [example of possible solution]

Here is my revised version of SCHOUMNUS ~Veliti~ September 2001

"A very inferior attempt @ SCHOUMNUS"

Well searching is - as Fravia puts it - all Lore.  
It definitely is no science.  
Well to start out the importance of searching is so evident now a days. 
You want to learn more about any subject;) its out there. 
With many diffrent views on the subject.
For instance with the SCHOUMNUS Lab exercise. 
Its just a series of questions that needed to 
be  answered. And as you'll see you will get many different 
answers that you will have to evaluate. 

The way I see it there is five questions to answer
		1. How much money will media loose during the next year
		2. How much advertisment budget will be diverted toward the web
		3. Are people clicking more or less
		4. Visual tricks used to lure clicking
		5. How much does an advertisment campaign on the web cost

The next step is to figure out some keywords to begin with and then we 
will refine as we go.
		+banner* +advertisement
Well we've learned persuing Googles' archive that with the above 
		A. CPM= average banner cost per 1000 views
		B. Ad Click Rate= how often an ad gets clicked
		C. Theres an Internet Advertising Bureau
	Also some new keywords to look up
		+"internet statistics"
		+"market research"
		+advertising spending by media
		+internet and web revenue*
		+"advertising confidence index"
		+earning* report

There! Now I think we're ready for the first question.
1. How much money will the media loose during the next year?
		Keywords- earnings report
			- revenues
			- media
			- "advertising confidence index"
  Here's some links that stand out:

Basicly even though a lot of "reports" say advertising budgets are 
going to increase for the year, the earning reports all say the same thing...
its getting tougher & tougher for media companies to make money. 
Advertising seditment is going down as well.

2. How much advertising budget will be diverted toward the web?
  		Keywords- market*
  			- advertis*
  			- budget*
  			- internet
  Here's some links that stand out:,1283,978,00.html

There's not much reading between the lines with this one, 60-65% of 
revenues go toward marketing. With advertising spending being the number one 
This link is also very interesting;,,12_449801,00.html
this and many other articles that are all over the net about this issue
all say the same thing that, "shift away from relativey expensive TV 
advertising to online advertising and marketing. 

The percent of marketing budgets spent 
online increased to 59 percent in Q2 from 48 percent in Q1."

3. Are people clicking more or less?
		Keywords- "äverage click rate"
			- banner*
  Here's some links that stand out:

Average click rates drop 37% to only a big 0.58%. That means for every 
200 ad impressions there is ONE click. Now thats real low and the follow 
through with the clicks is even lower meaning not everyone that clicks 
makes a purchase.

4. Visual tricks used to lure clicking.
		Keywords- advertis*
			- strategy
  Here's some links that stand out:

So we see that there are many tricks to grap the users attention. There
are even contests to create "the greatest eye cathing banner".
Colours: Eye grabbing colours
Animation: Movement grabs users attention; frames
Frequency: A user must see the banner often
Placement: Banner gets more clicks next to the right scroll
	   @ the top & bottom of page
	   third of the page down etc.
Enticing Words: Free, Click Here, etc.

5. How much does an advertising campaign on the web cost?
		Keywords- CPM
			- advertis*
			- campaign
			- average
  Here's some links that stand out:  -->pg.38

All sites use CPM as a measure of how exspensive advertisng will be on 
their site. The average CPM is $30.00 dollars. 
The average marketing campaign will spend about $10,000 dollars 
on advertising "for the web" while a marketing campaign "on television" 
would cost - on average - $340,000 dollars.

So in conclusion if it cost $30 dollars to make 1000 people see an ad 
(CPM) that means 5 people will end up clicking that ad (Ad click rate). 
Thats 5 potential customers for only $30 dollars. A big cost difference 
in comparison to the old way - that used to be 'the only way' - television.  
Which probably explains why this avenue of advertising is so interesting 
for the advertisers and why they pour so much money into learning how to 
make it work.

3) Stalking: Europolticians and powerful puppeteers
codename: Melchom
everybody and his dog on-line... privacy bye bye...
stalking, hidden databases perusing, squeezing truths out of the media.

They want to be 'modern', they want to be 'internetted'... so they'r dumping on line billions of data for the heck of it... yet some of these data they should have better kept hidden :-)
Have a look at my [Strawberry fields... forever] ramblings. Towards the end of the essay you'll find a page with a series of pointers to current legislation initiatives and how to 'read' them. Ok, let's use this thema for a promising stalking' lab: WHO EXACTLY DID GO OUT OF HIS WAY IN ORDER TO AVOID serious mad-cow (BSE) enquires in Europe?: lobbysts? Who? Producers? Who? Bureaucrats? Who? Euro-Parlamentarians? Who? Members of the COREPER? Who? (Names and e-mail addresses please :-)
Spelunking boldly in the dark world of real polytical power and vermineous lobbies.
Suggestion: EP-Minutes; publications of the 'enemies' of your targets (in this case environmentalists and 'greens') and, last but not least, a stab at the almost "media-hidden" COREPER club of the 15 powerful 'gray men' (who gave them those powers? When? Who controls them?) who are publicity-shy (quite effectively) and did (and of course will) delight all sort of nutty "conspiration theorists" around the world. These 15 power-brokers are nevertheless worth a full-fledged investigation per se :-)

An [example of possible solution] by ~Veliti~:

First off I would like to apologize for my short comings in my essay for this lab exercise. For I have very little interest in following this research topic in depth, but merely wish to complete the lab2 section. So just keep in mind that this is the bare minimal for such a topic that actually resembles a cobweb.jpg of conflicting stories. Getting to the 'truth' of such a topic would trully require some time consuming stalking activity. So I will give you some links on the subject that I believe to hold some interest and let you evaluate on your own from there. Anyways heres a try...

First off I need to understand the subject of BSE so Googles' directory on BSE will help
This link is really worth looking at -BSE inquiry. It seems the cattle farmers (for breeding reasons), rendering companies... basically the whole Agricultural community, and those in the government dealing with Agriculture are to blame. gives an extensive amount of letters, documents, memos etc. For a list of cattle breeds originating in Europe- For a listing of Animal Feed Manufacturers - Associated British Nutrition(ABN) owned by Associated British Foods(ABF) owned by Wittington Investments- is a very large animal feed manufacturer which has admitted to using practices that are known to transmit BSE. Now in the EP Report on BSE(a4002097) we see that BSE was not a topic discussed at length. First we must see how the EU works and who 'gets issues discussed'. - So it seems these business men have a lot of power, considering they control all proposals that reach EU ministers. So the blame must be particially there fault-
And since they are business men it would seem their interests lay with money.- Next we see in a4002097 that the EU Commissioners were also at fault-

Now the whole thing starts getting really interesting when we start to look into certain committees. MAFF- these guys tried to keep a lid on the BSE problem. ***The Letter*** -Keith Meldrum -chief veterinary officer at MAFF

Theres a short list at the end of this with many other names, to many to list them all.

Why would anyone put so many lives at risk?
Maybe for more profit and advancement in their career-

Why would MAFF try to keep such an important topic 'quite'?
Maybe for $$$- -MLC (a lobbyist group for meat & livestock)- the funny thing about this group is their the ones that supply most of the information the government relies on. Also get this, their responsibilities include human and animal health as well as promotion of beef products.
Thats kind of conflicting interests, don't you think?

Anyways I'm tried of writing and I'm sure you all can read a4002097. I'll just leave you with a incomplete, unorganized list you can persue at leisure.

1. Ray MacSharry
2. Franz Fischier
3. John Gummer ,,9312,-2109,00.html
4. Kenneth Clarke
5. Kenneth Calman
6. Donald Acheson
7. Douglas Hogg
8. John MacGregor
9. Richard Packer
10. Ray Bradley ,
11. William Howard Rees 
12. Keith Meldrum
13. Gilbert Castille
14. Southwood Members- 
(I completely forgot to talk about these guys :( sorry.)
16. -Don Curry
17. -cattle breed societies
18. -another list of cattle 
19. -beef breeders
20. -beef producers
-companies using animal by products
22. -early 
about breeding
23. -Colin Maclean
24. -Kate Timms
25. -David Durie
26. -MLC Statement
27. -letter 
to R. 
28. -channel 4
Wow, what a list of names, and thats just the tip of the iceberg. But what can one do exactly with a list of names. Well this is a lab on stalking so lets stalk.
To give an example, my target will be H.E. Mr. Manfred Scheich of COREPER. Lets gather some information on our target ie. where he works (city its in, cities around it), what school he went to etc. The more info the better, you can get a real feel for the target. Now we know the Mr. Scheich is a Former Permanent Representative of the Republic of Austria, so chances are he will live in his beloved country of Austria.
Now depending on the country you may need a map to locate some surrounding areas, but for this target that won't be nessary. Lets use and look him up in the phonebook :).
There he is
Now of course this person would have to be cross checked and confirmed but thats it. Heres some links (some maybe broken... did not check),,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, blah 
Anyways now a days even a simple email address can help reveal a lot of information about who and where you are.


4) Images seeking: No two snowflakes look alike
codename: Magrad
Usenet combing, Images databases, university archives perusing, references on the web, Internet scientific publications retrieval techniques

How often did you hear that one? "There are not and there never will be two snowflakes alike". Micro-infinity? And then, near such an assertion, you'll always have a small image with five-six (different) snowflakes... always the same five-six? :-)
Let's find out the truth... somewhere on the huge web there are THOUSANDS of snowflakes images... let's see IF and HOW different they really are. Enough banalities: seekers will find out the truth...
Spelunking boldly the images web-world
Suggestion: Fractals, Infinite, Mathematical algos, fuzzy...

An [example of possible solution] by Loki
[Magrad] : No two snowflakes look alike
On the nature of snow crystals, and why they form such a variety of shape -- an investigation into the genesis of form.

General information
Time collecting and querying : ~2 hours
Major Search Engines used : Google, Surfwax, RagingSearch. No use of Usenet Database.
Specific Search Engines used : Knowledge Network Explorer Search, The Research Index
Attachment : loki_magrad_pool.txt

How often did you hear that one? "There are not and there never will be two snowflakes alike".

A simple query on "similar snowflakes" on google leads to an interesting pdf file,wich i used as a starting point. Here, we see that a more exact ( in term of signal intensity ) sentence is "no two snowflakes are alike". It would have been too easy if +F just have pasted it instead of "There are not and there never will be two snowflakes alike". No M (mechanical) mode allowed :p

So, what's interesting in that pdf ? Two major output :
Wilson Bentley, an american photographer, worked on 6000 snowflakes, viewing them on microscope, to see if he could find identical one ( omg ... ). Guess what ? He failed :) That was during the beginning of the 20th centuary.
The second major output for us is that there is a Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado,who found two very similar snowflakes. It is not said that they were identical ...

We've got a starting point now :)


Now, let's find who's that Bentley dude.
Wilson A. Bentley The Snowflake Man

From the earliest memories of our childhood, many of us can remember hearing the phrase "no two snowflakes are alike". This discovery was made in the small rural town of Jericho, Vermont by Wilson A. Bentley (1865-1931).
A self educated farmer, Bentley attracted world attention with his pioneering work in the area of photomicrography, most notably his extensive work with snow crystals (commonly known as snowflakes). By adapting a microscope to a bellows camera, and years of trial and error, he became the first person to photograph a single snow crystal in 1885.
He would go on to capture more than 5000 snowflakes during his lifetime, not finding any two alike. His snow crystal photomicrographs were acquired by colleges and universities throughout the world and he published many articles for magazines and journals including, Scientific American and National Geographic.
In 1931 his book "Snow Crystals", containing more than 2400 snow crystal images, was published by McGraw-Hill but has long been out of print. A soft cover copy, identical in all respects, can be obtained today from Dover Publications, Inc.. On December 23, 1931, Bentley died at the family farmhouse in Jericho. Because of his wonderful work with snow crystals, he became affectionately known as "Snowflake" Bentley.

I want to SEE some ! :)
blah ...

To fill your eyes with beautifull pictures taken by the "Snowflake man" in 1902, try here instead : to wea02098.htm

hemm, there is another hunt for the snowflakes ? Did +F ripped it ? :p
an Internet Treasure Hunt on Snowflake Bentley

anyway, we can use some of these ressources (i didit to find the KNES engine)

We know enough on Bentley for our challenge. Let's go deeper. Does his work valuable nowaday ? After reading his articles, can we say : No there can't be two identical snowflakes ?
Wilson Bentley was the originator of the well-known saying that no two snowflakes are alike, yet on page 43 of his book, Snow Crystals, the top two snow crystals in the center column are very much alike.

haha !

They are alike because the same photograph mistakingly was used for both of them, though the upper photo has been rotated 60 degrees clockwise from the lower one.

duh !

So put the flag away. Bentley's famous saying is still true

Can i believe you dude ? :) (posted on August 01, 2000 at 15:16:52 ... at least it is recent)
Hmmm ... that board is related to snowflakes, that guys MUST know what they say !
To be sure, we could do a REALLY fast stalking on Duncan Blanchard to find if he is reliable.

Duncan C. Blanchard holds degrees in engineering (B.S., Tufts, 1947), physics (M.S., Penn State, 1951), and meteorology (Ph.D., MIT, 1961), and has conducted research in the atmospheric sciences at General Electric, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, and the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center, SUNY-Albany. He has published more than 150 articles and books. His book From Raindrops to Volcanoes, written for a popular audience, has been printed in seven languages.

Blanchard has long held an interest in Bentley's life. A natural affinity developed due to Bentley's work with snow crystals and Blanchard's interest in the development and growth of snowflakes, snow crystals, raindrops, and the seeding of clouds.

Do you think he is reliable according to Sielaff's lessons ?


Now, let's go searching the National Center for Atmospheric Research we saw sooner. Can we find the two identical snowflakes they thinked having found ?
1175 Snowflakes (Two Identical)

Hmm .. not really helping, but interesting :)


Using the KNES engine on the Filamentality (don't ask why that name...) querying "snowflake alike", we can collect lots of information usefull to go deeper in our challenge.
This site is all about snow crystals and snowflakes. Although a common meteorological phenomenon, snow crystal growth is a fascinating and poorly understood process, in which remarkably complex and beautifully symmetric structures appear, quite literally, out of thin air. The many facets of snow crystals are described here, along with our attempts to understand their formation.

I'm sure we'll find all we want there :)

Be sure to check these one :

From that last one, we can have a list of photographs who had work on that subject :
1931 -- Wilson A. Bentley
1954 -- Ukichiro Nakaya
1969 -- Edward LaChapelle
1981 -- Schaefer and Day
1984 -- Kobayashi and Kuroda
1994 -- Walter Tape
1994+ -- William Wergin
1997 -- Walter Wick
2000 -- Patty Rasmussen
2000 -- Yoshinori Furukawa (fiewwww ... his photos are ... fascinating. Check his site :

To finish with that site, we can check its reliability with a "combing like" raging search query :
+link:"" : About 348 pages found.
+link:"" : About 3 pages found
+link:"" +domain:edu : About 64 pages found.
+link:"" +domain:gov : About 2 pages found.

imho, this site can be considered as a reference ...


A recent way of taking pictures of snowflakes is the Electron microscopy. Seems to appear on 1994 with William Wergin. Let's look closer
Snow Crystal Research

Something to outline :
Snow Crystal Publication List (linked to full text)

Check the .txt if interested :)


I don't know if that's an answer to the challenge ... i believe we can't find two identical ones, for the same reasons that we can't really mesure the britain coast ...
I don't want to look to thousand of pictures to be sure of it, i've got other things to do in my life - all my respects are deserved to Bentley .. he was from that kind of dreamers i RESPECT -

I wouldn't trade places with Henry Ford or John Rockefeller for all their millions! And I wouldn't change places with a king: not for all his power and glory. I have my snowflakes! -- Bentley

Seekers can find the truth, if saying that bentley was right is a truth ... can we WRITE the truth ?

let's see IF and HOW different they really are.
We can build a big gallery with all the snowflake pictures we found, and try to use an algorithm to compare them ... but that can't work. That's only pictures. We don't have the ressource of the Snow Crystal Research.

I didn't use the suggestions (Fractals, Infinite, Mathematical algos, fuzzy...) as a core for my seeking.

I am a children of the Chaos ( cf B. Sapoval's publications )

Valuable ressources collected :

Images : to wea02098 ( seems to be a nice site)

Out of Subject Valuable Sites :
search on blue ribbon sites

"Snow crystals are the hieroglyphs sent from the sky." -- Nakaya, 1954

"no two snowflakes are alike"

Studies by Wilson Bentley, an american photographer on 6000 snwflk on microscope

Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado, found two very similar snwflk


Search in Surfwax : "no two snowflakes are alike" + Bentley
fast "on the fly" evaluation

Wilson A. Bentley The Snowflake Man

>>> <<<
Why do snowflakes crystallize into such intricate structures?
Charles A. Knight is a Senior Scientist : the National Center for Atmospheric Research
begin here : ->

>>> <<<
an Internet Treasure Hunt on Snowflake Bentley


Search in NCAS : "snowflake"
1175 Snowflakes (Two Identical)

K nowledge N etwork E xplorer S earch
search on blue ribbon sites


Search in Filamentality (KNES) : "snowflake alike"

>>> <<<
(...) 1994+ -- William Wergin (...)
Snow Crystal Research
Snow Crystal Publication List (linked to full text)
The shapes of snow crystals have been extensively studied
and photographed with the light microscope (Bentley, 1904;
1923; Bentley and Humphreys, 1931; Nakaya, 1954).
Snow Crystal Links

Some tips before leaping into it:
  1. How easy (or difficult) was it to figure out the correct approach?
  2. Was the formulation adequate to help you plan your search?
  3. Which search-approaches and strategies did you choose?
  4. Did you use any "classical" search engine? If so which ones?
  5. Did you use any "special" search engine? If so which ones?
  6. How many results did you retrieve?
  7. What proportion of the results were relevant to your perceived information requirements?
  8. How current were the results? How many 404s?
  9. Was the amount of detail displayed with the results enough to allow you tho evaluate?
  10. Was the order in which the results were displayed evident or apparently illogical?
  11. What other features contribute to (or detract from) the utility of the tools and approaches you choosed?
  12. Did you time your query?
Eh, of course you don't need to answer all the questions above. The purpose of these labs is to let you understand how important it is to be more "systematic" when searching the web. You may hop, you may leap, you may be a grasshopper or an ant... the only decisive factor is the success of your query and the time you had to employ: you got the targets you were searching for quickly? You won.
Feedback, critics, suggestions, ameliorations... welcome!
  [Lab1]   [Hints for lazy searchers]   [Feedback]   [Lab3]  
[~S~ Seekers' msgboard] 
Petit image

(c) 1952-2032: [fravia+], all rights reserved